Prefork vs Worker

Apache2 comes with several threading/process models to handle requests. The traditional method is maintained as prefork while the newer method is worker. The main difference is that the former relies on forking processes while the latter method uses multiple threads. The result is that worker is faster than prefork under load.

I tested this by setting up two servers, one with prefork and the other with worker. I used Apache Bench to hit both systems. At low concurrency of around 200 connections, both of them worked equally as well because in both cases, the main bottleneck was CPU. After I increased the CPU from single to six-cores, the load was handled equally well until I upped the ante to 500 concurrent connections.

At this point, the worker model would still run fine while the prefork model would start to fail periodically. It is like it has trouble handling the sudden spike. Once it has been hit a few times, it will also be able to handle the load but ramping up is less graceful. This is pretty obvious once you think about it a bit and preforking processes will have a larger overhead than spawning threads.

The only advantage of using preforking is when handling non-thread safe code. However, since my Apache serves only as a reverse proxy front-end, it does not need to handle any non-thread safe scripts. These are all handled at the back-end by other servers. So, there is really no necessity for the prefork model on my setup.

Published by

Shawn Tan

Chip Doctor, Chartered/Professional Engineer, Entrepreneur, Law Graduate.

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